Special map accompanying Richmond's South African All Mining Year Book illustrating the location of Mines, Quarries and Works. Andrew's experience covers all aspects of the resource venture capital from project evaluation, IPO's, fundraising, investor relations, cartography, technical report writing, exploration program design, with an applied expertise in mineral exploration in porphyry copper deposits, Athabasca unconformity uranium deposits, RIRG's (reduced intrusive related gold) deposits and layered mafic intrusion Ni-Cu-PGM deposits. The Witwatersrand Supergroup contains more uranium than gold and the Witwatersrand gold mines are in fact also uranium mines. This pushed up a core area but pulled the surrounding crust down and protected the basin from erosion. Witwatersrand Gold Mining Company Limited is a former South African gold mining company. Part 1, Great Deposits – Grasberg Part 3 – Mining and Engineering, Great Deposits – Slovakia’s Banská Štiavnica Mining District, John Reed’s Doorstop: America’s First Gold Rush was Not in California, CuEq Metal Equivalent Calculator for Mining Results, Cigar Lake Mine: the World’s Largest Uranium Producer, Bathurst Mining Camp: One of the World’s Great Base Metal Districts, Geology of the PGE Deposits in the Bushveld Complex, South Africa, Emerald Heart of Africa: The Kagem Mine, Kafubu Mining Area, Zambia. These gold fields dominated production throughout the twentieth century, but production peaked at … Frimmel HE, Minter WEL (2002) Recent developments concerning the geological history and genesis of the Witwatersrand gold deposits, South Africa. in American Scientist “The Origin of Gold in South Africa” Nov 2003 (, Laurence J. Robb and F. Michael Meyer “The Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa: Geological framework and mineralization processes” from Ore Geology Reviews June 1995 (, Horscroft et al. At a first glance, the Witwatersrand basin, the largest known gold resource on our planet, is not automatically related to ocean research. Another find by Pieter Jacob Marais was recorded in 1853 on the Jukskei River, but was subject to similar secrecy. The Witwatersrand Goldfields comprise the world’s biggest gold deposit, responsible for more than 40% of the gold ever mined on Earth. A brief overview of the history and development of Witwatersrand, the famous gold mine of South Africa. Shafts go down some 3,900 meters below the surface, where temperatures reach 60° Celcius (140° F) and deadly rockfalls are common. Techniques such as cyanidization, or the removal and concentration of gold with cyanide was developed in response to the difficulties encountered by 19th century miners in the Witwatersrand. There is one known shaft. / Shows land ownership of gold fields. This sea was formed approximately 3 billion years ago after the collision between the Zimbabwe and Kaapvaal cratons. Though there were smaller mining operations in the region, it wasn’t until 1884 and the subsequent 1886 discovery at Langlaagte that the Witwatersrand gold rush got under way in ea… With Oil and Gas his experience is primarily in the Madison, Bakken and Nisku Petroleum systems of Southern Alberta/ Northern Montana. The Witwatersrand plateau consists of a 5000-to-7000-metre-thick (3.1–4.3 mi) layer of mainly sedimentary rocks laid down over a period of about 260 million years, starting approximately 2.97 billion years ago. You can scroll down to find more maps of this location. Metal Mining in Peru – The Emergence of a Global Giant? The hydrothermal model proposes that gold entered the basin via the permeable conglomerate horizons via hydrothermal activity and was precipitated out, around the pyrite and uranium. Davis, an English miner. The region is at the centre of South African gold mining, which has permanently marked the man-made landscape with its many spoil heaps and pits. Goldmann's map, Witwatersrand gold fields : S.A.R. o The Randlords and the formation of the Chamber of Mines. The collection contains record books originating from the former gold mines Robinson Deep Gold Mining Company, Luipaardsvlei Estate and Gold Mining Company, Rietfontein Consolidated Mines and few unidentified. A map showing the distribution of coal and Witwatersrand Basin gold deposits. The gold mines in this area are possibly the deepest mines in the world (mining operations at 3600 m and exploration core-drilling up to 4600m). Accompanied by walking stick in which map was attached to. In: Goldfarb RJ, Nielsen RL (eds) Integrated methods for discovery: global exploration in the twenty-first century. The evidence for this is the presence of extremely rich gold grades associated with carbonaceous horizons, the varying richness of the conglomerate beds and the complex suite of elements co-deposited with the gold. +Scope and urgency of the problem (cont.) With photos, facts, and figures about its impact on the growth of the region, the history of precious metals in the area, and the people that have mined the gold from the ground, even up to today. The Witwatersrand gold fields of South Africa account for more than a third of the world's total gold production since mining started there in 1886: 48,000 t Au. A final hypothesis is of bio-chemical precipitation. The Witwatersrand Basin is approximatly 350 km long and 200 km wide. Old Gold: An Introduction to Archean Greenstone Belts, SEDEX: The Biggest Lead and Zinc Deposits in the World, Decoding the JORC Code: An Overview for Investors, Adapting Petroleum Geophysics for Mineral Exploration, Brian F. Windley “The Evolving Continents” 3rd edition 1995. Evidence for this comes from the facts that the gold is older than the host rock, the gold is found almost exclusively in the conglomerates and some gold shows a flattened, circular appearance, indicative of water transport. The actual gold deposits themselves are quite thin and the surrounding rock matrix is very hard. ”¢ Deep-level gold mining on the Witwatersrand 1886 onwards - Why gold is valuable - The discovery and mining of deep level gold on the Witwatersrand. Its name means “Ridge of White Waters.” The highland, which forms the watershed between the Vaal and Limpopo rivers, is about 62 miles (100 km) long and 23 miles (37 km) wide; its average elevation is about 5,600 The gold deposits located in this basin make up the largest known concentration of gold ..... 5 3. Legends in English and Afrikaans. In 1886, after years of rumors, legends, and smaller discoveries, it was definitively established that there was a huge, rich deposit of gold under the Witwatersrand, a rocky ridge in South Africa. As the Witswatersrand has accumulated a massive literature of studies going back some 100 years the following are a mere sample. o How gold is mined. The first discovery of gold in the region is recorded as being in 1852 in the Pardekraal farm by J.H. Union of South Africa. The scarp, primarily formed of hard, erosion resistant quartzite sedimentary rocks, as well as banded iron-stones and marine lava deposits interspersed with relatively softer rocks, nestles a large number of waterfalls. The Witwatersrand Nigel Gold Mine is near Springs, South Africa. These instructions will show you how to find historical maps online. To accompany the handbook, The Mineral Resources of the Union of South Africa" 1959. o Conditions underground. Many deposits are either deeply buried or have been mined to the point that only the deeper deposits remain. Located in South Africa, the Witwatersrand Basin represents the richest gold field ever discovered. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Data System catalogs information about mineral resources around the United States and the world. 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